Chinese Army
CHINESE ARMY
INDIA-BURMA
CAMPAIGN


A unique pictorial history from a Chinese perspective

China's Expeditionary Forces and C.A.I.

  In the history of China's participation of war overseas, there were two Chinese Expeditionary Forces and one Chinese Army in India.
  The first Chinese Expeditionary Force was sent from Yunnan in the spring of 1942 into Burma to participate in the defense of that country. The words "1st Route" were attached to this Expeditionary Force, as the Japanese aggressive campaign was then at the height of its fury, and it was planned that additional expeditionary forces, to be designated 2nd and 3rd Routes, would be dispatched by China to the aid of her Allies in Siam and even the South Pacific. The first force was, however, generally known to the world merely as the Chinese Expeditionary Force, the words "into Burma" being sometimes designated together. It was commanded by General Lo Cho-ying.
  With the conclusion of the first Burma Expedition and the end of this mission of the first Chinese Expeditionary Force, the Chinese Army in India (C.A.I.) was created. This designation was adopted because there was no fighting in Indian territory, and an expeditionary force could not be stationed in an Allied country.
  The C.A.I. was to become an important actor in the later Burma campaign which reopened the route between India and China. The New First Army, the achievements of which are recorded in this publication, constituted the major part of the C. A. I. Throughout its later activities in the successful counter-attack in Burma and until its return to China after the completion of its mission, the C.A.I. maintained its original designation.
  The second Expeditionary Force sent by China into Burma was organized in 1944. This force entered Burma from western Yunnan, under the command of General Chen Cheng, and later of General Wei Lin-huang, to co-ordinate with the efforts of the C.A.I. attacking from India. The two Chinese forces eventually effected a junction at Mongyu after a brilliant campaign.

The First Force into Burma

  The Pearl Harbor treachery in December, 1941, presaged a wild attempt by Japan to penetrate southwards into the Pacific. Following their capture of Singapore, the Japanese launched and intensified drive into Burma to deal a blow on our British ally and to cut off the sole surviving international route to China - the Burma Road. The combined forces of the Japanese 33rd, 55th and 18th Divisions took part in this offensive.
  When Rangoon, capital of Burma, fell into Japanese hands on March 7, 1942, the Chinese Government at Britain's request dispatched the 5th, 6th and 65th Armies, then stationed at Yunnan, into Burma - the first Chinese Expeditionary Force.
  Out of this Expeditionary Force, the men of the New 38th Division and the New 22nd Division were later transferred to India to form the nucleus of the C.A.I.

The Birth of the C.A.I.

  The first Burma campaign failed because of inadequacy of Allied preparedness and the lateness in the arrival of the Chinese forces. Nevertheless, during the campaign, the 5th Army inflicted a severe toll on the enemy, while the New 38th Division achieved the great feat of rescuing more than 7,000 British troops from a Japanese trap at Yenangyaung.
  The withdrawal from Burma, in the face of overwhelming odds, was finally effected under great difficulties by June 8, 1942.
  On June 14, 1942, a military review took place at New Delhi on the occasion of United Nations' Day.
 Advance Through Jungle
A squad from the New 38th Division represented China on the occasion, and made a plausible impression to the Allied leaders. Both British and Indian circles expressed open admiration for the Chinese achievements at the Burma expedition just concluded, and the foundations were laid for the stationing of a Chinese Army in India.
  The 38th Division, which had withdrawn into Indian territory, was a month later transferred to Ramgarh for training. The division was soon joined by the New 22nd Division, originally intended to be withdrawn into Yunnan, but re-directed to India.
  In August, 1942, the Chinese Army in India was officially formed. General Stilwell, Chief of staff in the China Theatre, was appointed Commander-in-Chief, with General Lo Cho-ying as his deputy.
  In the spring of 1943, General Lo was transferred to a post at home. The High Command organized the New 38th Division, the New 22nd Division, and the newly created 30th Division (formed in India) into a new army - the New First Army. Lt. Gen. Cheng Tung-kuo was placed in command of the Army with Lt. Gen. Sun Li-jen as the Deputy Commander, who commanded the New 38th Division concurrently. The New 30th Division was commanded by Maj. Gen. Hu Shu, while Maj. Gen. Liao Yao-hsiang retained the command of the New 22nd Division. Artillery regiments, Engineering regiments, motor transport regiments, armored car units, anti-aircraft units, signal corps, special service units, military police units, and men and animal transportation units, either sent from home or newly organized in India, increased the strength of the Army which was subsequently further augmented by the 14th and 50 Divisions after its march into the Hukawng Valley.

The War Record in Burma

  The counter-offensive in Burma really began in March 1943, when the vanguards of the New 38th Division undertook the duty of annihilating or expelling the enemy on the Indian border so that the initial engineering work on the India-Burma Road could be protected. This prelude to the actual campaign was successfully completed ny the end of October, 1943, when the enemy's 18th Division, reputed a strong force, was driven away from its stronghold. The operations at this juncture were carried out under greatest difficulties, for in addition to the obstinate enemy, our forces had to combat the reptile infested jungle, where communications were entirely underdeveloped.
  On the eve of New Year's Day of 1944, the New 38th Division successfully took Yupong Ga, and reinforcements arrived later.
  By February, 1944, the New 38th Division, continuing its success, occupied Taipha Ga, while the New 22nd Division also captured Taro, and the two forces launched a combined attack against Maingkwan. The victory at Walawbum on March 9 concluded the Hukawng Valley campaign.
  The enemy defense of the Mogaung Valley was aided by its geographical advantages and the Chinese progress was considerably checked by the difficult terrain. By the latter part of May, 1944, however, when a new strategy was employed we made our advance. In spite of the high water level on the river with the approach of the rainy season we succeeded in crossing the Namkawng River. This act surprised the enemy and cut off his retreat, capturing at the same time much of his supplies. The famous Battle of Seton ensued with disastrous results to the enemy. On June 16, we captured Kamaing, and on the 25th of the same month Mogaung also fell.
  Simultaneous with this fighting in the Mogaung Valley, the fight for Myitkyina also raged high. A combined Chinese-American detachment, consisting of the New 38th Division, the 50th Division, and a portion of the 14th Division, with one regiment of American troops, attacked that important city. The Japanese staged a desperate defense and street fighting raged for 80 days. The city finally fell on August 4, and the first stage of the Burma counter-offensive was concluded.
  During the temporary respite that followed this important victory, there were some changes in the organization and command of the Chinese Army in India. General Stilwell had been recalled to the United States and he was succeeded by Lt. Gen. Sultan, with Lt. Gen. Cheng Tung-kuo second-in-command. The Chinese Army in India was
 Forward Charge
now composed of two armies - the New First and the New Sixth. The New First Army consisted of the New 30th Division and the New 38th Division. The New Sixth Army had under its command the 14th Division, the 50th Division, and the New 38th Division. General Sun Li-jen commanded the New 1st Army while General Liao Yao-hsiang commanded the New 6th.
  The rainy season of Burma ended by October when C.A.I. commenced its second phase of offensive. The New 6th Army except the 50th Division which became part of the New First, had in the meantime been transferred to the home front and the New 1st Army continued its march towards Bhamo to complete the task of opening the overland road from India to China.
  The siege of Bhamo reached its fiercest stage on November 17, 1944, when the Japanese resorted again to a desperate defense strategy. By December 15, enemy lines were fully penetrated, and the Chinese force pushing ahead passed Bhamo towards Namhkam. The Army was now met by the Japanese 49th Division, which had been specially transferred to Burma from Korea, only to be routed after five days of intensified combat.
  Namhkam was entered by the New 30th Division on January 15, 1945. On January 27, the New 38th Division captured Mongyu, the junction between the new India Road and the former Burma Road. The following day, a ceremony was held to celebrate the junction of C.A.I. and Expeditionary Force from Yunnan, and Stilwell Road was fully opened.
  To render effective assistance to our British allies fighting in lower Burma and to protect the newly opened Stilwell Road, the New First Army continued toi push southward towards central Burma. On February 20, the New 30th Division captured Hsenwi, while on March 8, the New 38th Division captured Lashio. At the same time, the 50th Division, sweeping down from Katha, also captured in succession Mwanhawn, Namtu, and Hsipaw. On March 20, Kyankme was captured, completing the chain of victories of the Chinese Army in the Burma campaign.
  The campaign in Burma occupied two full years, practically all of which were fully taken up in fighting against all odds. The difficult terrain and jungle fighting will all its horrors were strenuously overcome. All these factors made up an epic episode of achievement in our military annal.
  During the campaign, Chinese Army encountered the Japanese 2nd, 18th, 49th, 53rd, and 56th Divisions and the 34th Independent Brigade, as well as other special units. The enemy suffered 33,082 dead, including many ranking officers, while another 75,000 casualties were counted as wounded, and more than 300 prisoners taken. The enemy practically suffered total annihilation. Our casualties were about one-sixth of that of the enemy. Trophies which were taken included 7,938 rifles, 643 machine guns, 185 cannons, 553 motor vehicles, 453 locomotives and wagons, 67 tanks, 5 airplanes, 108 godowns, and more than 20,000 tons of metals. The area liberated cy C.A.I. was more than 50,000 square miles, in which were 646 miles of highways and 161 miles of railroads.

 Map of India-Burma Theater (CLICK TO ZOOM)


 'in action with a solidified front and determination against insurmountable hardship & odds of the enemy in the Burma jungles'
 CAI
 CAI
 CAI
 CAI
 CAI
 CAI


 Training at Ramgarh (CLICK TO ZOOM)
  Chosen as the training center for Chinese Army in India, the small town of Ramgarh in the Province of Bihar soon bustled with life. The Chinese flag fluttered gaily over this part of land where Buddha was born.
  Though in the winter nights the air is a bit cold, the sun remains hot all the year around. Training was usually undertaken in intense heat. Besides the daily drill by units themselves, the Army was given sunstantial training in motor driving, tank operation, artillery, anti-gas practices, signal communications, engineering, ordnance and veterinary courses.
  As the ultimate mission of the Army was to recapture Burma, emphasis was placed on jungle fighting, hill and tree climbing, bridge building and similar exertions were being conscientiously gone through by both officers and men. The building up of a strong body was, of course, a primary prerequisite for all men. No time was spared in conducting a vigorous exercise as an all round activity.
  Political training, morale up-lifting and general improvement on the Knowledge of the soldiers also occupied an important place in the schedule. English, Hindustani and Burmese were avidly studied in order to enable the men to cultivate a better understanding with the local people with whom they had to come in contact.

 Ramgarh Training Center
RAMGARH TRAINING CENTER
 Ramgarh Training Center
A CONSISTENT POLITICAL TRAINING ON SUPREME DUTY OF SACRIFICE
 Ramgarh Training Center
REPORT BY ADJUTANT TO OFFICER COMMANDING IN FIELD DRILL
 Ramgarh Training Center
TRAINING BY GROUPS
 Ramgarh Training Center
RIGID TRAINING UNDER TROPICAL SUN
 Ramgarh Training Center
MARCH IN REVIEW
 Ramgarh Training Center
INTENSIVE DRILL
 Ramgarh Training Center
INSTRUCTION GIVEN BY COMPETENT PERSONNEL
 Ramgarh Training Center
LT. GEN. SUN LI-JEN PERSONAL SUPERVISION
 Ramgarh Training Center
BAYONETTING PRACTICE
 Ramgarh Training Center
SHOOTING AT RANGE TARGETS

 Ramgarh Training Center
AIMING TRAINING
 Ramgarh Training Center
MUTUAL RECTIFICATION IN SHOOTING PRACTICE

 Ramgarh Training Center
 Ramgarh Training Center
PHASES OF CAVALRY TRAINING


CHIEF OF STAFF GENERAL HO YING-CHING
ON INSPECTION OF THE TRAINING CENTER

  Chief-of-Staff General Ho Ying-ching on his visit to India at invitation of Marshal Wavell, Viceroy of India, February, 1943. General Ho made a special tour to Ramgarh Training Center where a maneuver was held for his review.

 Inspection of Training Center GENERAL HO YING-CHING TESTING THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE CONSTRUCTED BY THE ENGINEER CORPS.
 Inspection of Training Center GENERAL HO ON INSPECTION OF MANEUVERS, ACCOMPANIED BY LT. GEN. SUN (LEFT), LT. GEN. LIAO YAO-HSIANG (SECOND TO LEFT) AND MAJ. GEN. TANG SHOU-CHIH (EXTREME RIGHT).

 Inspection of Training Center THRUSTING FORWARD WITH BAYONETS AND TOMMY GUNS APPROACHING AN OBJECT
 Inspection of Training Center
MOVING FORWARD ON THEIR FRONT

 Inspection of Training Center GENERAL HO CONFERRING A MEDAL OF AWARD TO MACHINE-GUNNER PVT. WANG CHING, WHO DID A BRILLIANT PART IN THE MANEUVER BY HOLDING TO HIS POSITION FIRING.
 Inspection of Training Center OVER ONE THOUSAND HOLES BORNE ON THE SCORES OF DUMMIES INDICATING THE EFFICIENCY OF FIRING

 Gunnery Training

 Gunnery Training
ARTILLERY MEN WITH THEIR WEAPONS
 Gunnery Training
MOUNTING AND DISMANTLING OF MOUNTAIN GUNS
A DAILY ROUTINE OF THE ARTILLERY CORPS.
 Gunnery Training
TRENCH MORATRS IN ACTION

 Gunnery Training
HEAVY GUN BATTERY UNDER TRAINING
 Gunnery Training
RANGE MAKING OF A TARGET

 Gunnery Training
MOUNTAIN GUNS IN MOCK WAR
 Gunnery Training
MEASUREMENT TAKING OF THE GUN FIRING EFFICIENCY
 Gunnery Training
RANGE FINDING COMMUNICATED BY RADIO TO GUN BASE

 Ramgarh Training Center
WIRELESS SENDING SET WITH HAND GENERATOR
 Ramgarh Training Center
SIGNAL CORPS - THE EARS OF THE ARMY

 Ramgarh Training Center SWINGING POLE CLIMBING - A NECESSARY TECHNIQUE IN JUNGLE WARFARE
 Ramgarh Training Center
BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION BY THE ENGINEER CORPS

 Ramgarh Training Center
PACK ANIMALS TRANSPORT UNDER TRAINING

 Ramgarh Training Center DOGS TRAINED FOR MILITARY INTELLIGENCE
 Ramgarh Training Center
A DOG TRAINED AS MESSAGE CARRIER

 Physical Training
 Life in the Training Center
AT EASE (TOP)   PHYSICAL DRILL (BOTTOM)

 Life in the Training Center (1) LEVER DRILL (SINGLE) (TOP LEFT BACKGROUND)   (2) RELAY RACE (INSET TOP LEFT)   (3) HIGH JUMP (INSET BOTTOM LEFT)   (4) WOODEN-HORSE HIKING   (5) BARRICADE JUMPING   (6) BOXING   (7) BROAD JUMP   (8) LEVER DRILL (DOUBLE) (BOTTOM RIGHT BACKGROUND)

 Life in the Training Center
MESS AND FEEDING
 Life in the Training Center
BASKETBALL
 Life in the Training Center
PING-PONG


 Leaving Ledo Base
BIRDS-EYE VIEW OF JUNGLE MOUNTAINS
  By the spring of 1943, the Army had fairly completed its training. The Burma Road had been closed for a year, and China was in dire need of a new international supply route for the importation of war supplies. The time came for launching a counter-offensive in Burma so that the supply line might be established. General Sun Li-jen, as Advance Commander, led the New 38th Division as the vanguard of the campaign. From Ramgarh the Division returned to Ledo and took up the duty in annihilating the enemy in the Hukawng Valley in order to safeguard the supply junction in India.
  Ledo, a small hamlet on the edge of a primeval jungle, soon grew into a town with railroad extension from the Indian trunk lines. With the influx of troops it also became an armed camp, the operation base for launching a counter-offensive against the enemy in Burma and the springboard for an immediate campaign.
  A further period of training in jungle fighting was given the New 38th Division before their actual drive into Burma.
  On the path of the campaigners lay an immense tract of wild jungles and swamps infested by harmful animals, insects and brambles. Many lives had already been lost in this region during the Chinese troops' earlier withdrawal from Burma into India. The memory of the past incited the Army to a full determination in accomplishing their task.
  Eight months were spent in hewing a mountain path through this region, driving away the enemy, and allowing the engineers following in the wake of the Army to build the road.
  Surmounting the almost unbelievable difficulties, the New 38th Division conquered the border jungle, and in the early winter of 1943, occupied Shingbwiyang, which served as the advance base for the push towards the Hukawng Valley.

 Leaving Ledo Base
BUGLE CALL
 Leaving Ledo Base
ATTENDED BY RANK AND FILE

 Leaving Ledo Base
GENERAL SUN LI-JEN AT THE OATH-TAKING CEREMONY PRIOR TO MOVEMENT TO THE FRONT
 Leaving Ledo Base
REVIEW HELD PRIOR TO MOVEMENT TO THE FRONT

 Leaving Ledo Base
WAITING FOR ORDER TO MOVE FORWARD
 Leaving Ledo Base
PENETRATING THROUGH THE JUNGLE DEPTHS BEYOND THE HIGHWAY

 Leaving Ledo Base
CAVALRY WORKING ITS WAY THROUGH THE BUSHES ALWAYS ON ALERT FOR SNIPERS

 Bugle Call
DELICACIES ABOUND IN THE JUNGLE HILLS
 Ramgarh Training Center
CAVALRY SEARCH PARTY COMMUNICATING WITH OUTPOSTS THROUGH RADIO

 Mountain Artillery MOUNTAIN GUN ARTILLERY TO THE FRONT

 Mountain Artillery
SETTING OUT FROM LEDO BASE
 Mountain Artillery
READY FOR CHARGE

 Mountain Artillery
HORSEBACK TRANSPORTATION OF AMMUNITION AND SUPPLIES
 Mountain Artillery
JUNGLES PENETRATED BY BLAZING NEW ROADS

 Mountain Artillery
PACK ANIMAL CARAVAN WADING THROUGH FLOODED REGIONS



 Offensive in the Hukawng Valley
 Offensive in the Hukawng Valley




  The Hukawng Valley was one of the most atrategic important areas in the Burma campaign. The 18th Japanese Division, accredited as the enemy's "invincible" force, held sway over the area.

 Situation Map of Hukawng Valley (CLICK TO ZOOM)

 Offensive in the Hukawng Valley
DETACHMENT OF FLAME-THROWERS
 Offensive in the Hukawng Valley
FLAME-THROWERS DIRECTED ON THE ENEMY LINE

 Offensive in the Hukawng Valley
FLAME-THROWERS DIRECTED ON THE ENEMY LINE
 Offensive in the Hukawng Valley TREE TRUNK TUNED INTO STRONGHOLD BY DEFENSE FORCE AT YUPONG GA AGAINST THE ENEMY ADVANCE

 Struggle Over Yupong Ga
TRANSPORT PLANES DROPPING SUPPLIES TO AID THE DETACHMENTS OF ALLIED FORCES UNDER SIEGE


 Generals Conferring GENERAL SUN CONFERRING WITH MAJ. GEN. LI HUNG ON THE TACTICS FOR THE ATTACK ON YUPONG GA
The Battle for Yupong Ga

  The battle for Yupong Ga was the first fierce encounter in the counter-offensive in Burma. Chinese Army encountered an enemy force five times its own strength, and there was encirclement and re-encirclement of each other during the whole campaign. One battalion of the 112th Regiment was cut off from contact for 36 days, depending on supplies dropped by planes. Casualties suffered by both fighting parties were high.
  On December 21, 1944, General Sun Li-jen personally led a rescue party and with courage and strategy completely routed a most obstinate enemy force, heralding other suvvesses that were to follow in the campaign. General Stilwell presented General Sun with a special pennant to commemorate this unprecedented victory.

The Battle for Taipha Ga

  The enemy now entrenched himself at Taipha Ga. For the first time, the Chinese Army adopted the strategy of "swirving" fighting and divided forces to attack on all flanks. On February 1, the forces attacking the enemy's left scored such successes that the enemy was forced to abandon his plan of defensive fighting and come out in the open, to be defeated and routed.

The Victories at Maingkwan and Walawbum

  The building of the India-China Road had by this time made considerable headway, that the New 22nd Division was now able to launch forward from Ledo into the Hukawng Valley. After taking Taro in January the Division marched southwards toward Maingkwan, assisted by the 1st Tank Battalion in a joint operation. An American Regiment transferred from the South Pacific also joined in the campaign.
  In the battle of Maungyang River, the 114th Regiment captured secret orders issued by the enemy and the New 38th Division was thus enabled to proceed to behind the southern lines of the enemy and cut off his retreat.
  On March 4, the enemy was surprised at Maingkwan, which fell the following day.
  The New 38th Division pushed on towards Walawbum, the last enemy stronghold in the Hukawng Valley. The enemy put up a stiff resistance at this point for four days, and casualties were heavy, no less than 757 corpses were left by him after the fall of the place.
  With the capture of Walawbum on March 9, the campaign in the Hukawng Valley was brought to a successful end.

 Struggle Over Yupong Ga
PLACING GUN POSITIONS IN JUNGLE


 Struggle Over Yupong Ga
CLEARED FOR ACTION


 Struggle Over Yupong Ga
FRONT-LINE OFFICER REPORTING THE WAR SITUATION THROUGH RADIO TO THE COMMAND POST

 A Glorious Page of the Campaign TOP: CASUALTIES LEFT BY THE FLEEING ENEMY. MIDDLE: EVACUATED POSITION DESTROYED BY SEVERE BOMBARDMENT. BOTTOM: DUMMIES USED BY THE ENEMY AS SHOCK ABSORBERS.

The Capture of Laban

  Between the Hukawng Valley and the Mogaung Valley lies a 4,000-foot hill. A small path provides the only link between the two valleys. The New 22nd Division, with the Tank Corps, launched a frontal attack against the Mogaung Valley, while the New 38th Division, braving all difficulties of cliff climbing, went over to the back of the enemy.
  Fourteen days' arduous hill climbing brought the New 38th Division to a point 20 miles to the rear of the enemy, and Laban was taken immediately to cut off the enemy retreat. Meanwhile, the New 22nd Division also advanced against the enemy from the north and the two forces effected a junction at Shadazup.

Surprise Attack on Seton

  The enemy took full advantage of the mountainous terrain of the Mogaung Valley in laying defense positions. The rainy season in Burma was approaching by the end of May, and advance was checked. The New 22nd Division was held by the enemy at Malakawng. General Sun Li-jen considered it necessary to employ special strategy if the Mogaung war was to be concluded before the full blast of the rainy weather. A bolder attempt to send a regiment to the rear of the enemy was made. The 112th Regiment chosen for the purpose ran the enemy blockade across the Namkawng River, and took by surprise Seton, five miles to the rear of enemy-held Kamaing on May 26. Confusion was poured into enemy ranks.
  The enemy rushed reinforcements for the relief of the position, and during the fierce fighting that ensued, heavy casualties were inflicted on his troops, while the Chinese also suffered more than 300 losses.

The Forced Crossing of Namkawng River and the Capture of Kamaing

  The loss of Seton sealed the fate of the enemy in Kamaing. From May 29, Zigyun on the bank opposite Kamaing was subjected to bombardment and it fell on June 9. On the morning of June 16, a forced crossing was made, the wait being occasioned by the need to obtain supplies of rubber boats. The enemy had lost his morale, and the capture was imminent.

 Hukawng Valley
GENERAL STILWELL ON AN INSPECTION TOUR STUDYING A RECENTLY CAPTURED FLAG

 Hukawng Valley
MAJ. GEN. LI HUNG TAKING ACCOUNT OF THE TROPHIES CAPTURED BY HIS MEN
 Hukawng Valley
TROPHIES CAPTURED IN THE BATTLE OF WALAWBUM


The Fight for Mogaung City

  While the 113th Regiment was still attacking Zigyun, the 114th Regiment had proceeded rapidly towards Mogaung City. By June 15, many points to the north of the city had been placed under control. At the same time, the 77th British Brigade which paratrooped into Katha two months previously was being encircled by the enemy and the Chinese came to their rescue in time. The city itself was captured after two days of hard fighting.
  Enemy troops along the road from Kamaing to Mogaung still offered resistance despite the fall of both cities. They were duly taken care of.
  The battle of the Mogaung Valley had been successfully concluded.
  General Stilwell, in a telegram congratulating General Sun Li-jen, referred to the victory as a top-notch achievement.
  The Divisional Commander of the 3rd British Indian Division congratulated General Sun and General Li-hung for the great victory, and expressed gratitude for the assistance rendered the 77th British Brigade.

Tarun River Crossing

 Tarun River Crossing
RUBBER PONTOONS USED IN BURMA DURING RAINING SEASON

 Tarun River Crossing
BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION

 Tarun River Crossing
CHINESE SOLDIERS TOGETHER WITH U.S. MPs GUARDING A PONTOON BRIDGE ERECTED ON TARUN HKA AFTER THE CAPTURE OF YUPONG GA AND TAIPHA GA

 Tarun River Crossing
WRECKER USED TO PULL TRUCKS THROUGH JUNGLE MIRES

 Tarun River Crossing

 Tarun River Crossing
TANK CORPS IN ADVANCE TO THE FRONT


 High Command

 High Command
GENERAL STILWELL CONFERS WITH LT. GEN. SUN LI-JEN, MAJ. GEN. LI HUNG AND MAJ. GEN. HO CHUN-HENG

 High Command
GENERAL CHENG TUNG-KUO CONFERRING WITH GENERAL SUN AT THE FRONT
 High Command
GENERAL LIAO YAO-HSIANG DISCUSSING INTELLIGENCE AT HIS COMMAND POST

 High Command
GENERAL SUN DIRECTING THE ASSAULT UNDER COVER OF A BANYAN TREE
 High Command
MAJ. GENS. HO CHUN-HENG, TANG SHOU-CHIH AND KO NAN-SHAN OF NEW 38TH DIVISION RESTING BY RIVER SHORE DURING ONE OF THE FRONT LINE INSPECTION TOURS
 High Command
GENERAL SUN IN THE COMMUNICATION TRENCH


VICTORY OF MAINGKWAN AND WALAWBUM

 Maingkwan and Walawbum AT THE CAPTURE OF TAIPHA GA BY THE NEW FIRST ARMY, A U.S. INFANTRY REGIMENT ARRIVED AT THE HUKAWNG VALLEY, IN JOINT OPERATION WITH THEIR CHINESE ALLIES.
 Maingkwan and Walawbum FORCES OF THE NEW 22ND DIVISION WHICH STARTED FROM LEDO IN THE EARLY SPRING OF 1944 CAPTURED SEVERAL STRATEGIC POINTS ON THEIR WAY TO INVADE MAINGKWAN

 Maingkwan and Walawbum
NEW 22ND DIVISION WITH THE TANK CORPS ON ATTACK AT MAINGKWAN
 Maingkwan and Walawbum
CORPSES LEFT BY THE FLEEING ENEMY

 Maingkwan and Walawbum
ADMIRAL MOUNTBATTEN CALL ON GENERAL SUN LI-JEN


 Mogaung Valley
 Situation Map of Mogaung Valley (CLICK TO ZOOM)
  Before the commencement of the battle in the Mogaung Valley, the New 30th Division of the New First Army had already been trained intoi a combattant unit. It was further reinforced by the 14th and 50th Divisions, airborne into Burma.
  With the exception of the 149th Regiment of the 50th Division, the various units making up the three Divisions referred to in the first paragraph did not participate in the battle in the Mogaung Valley. They created a new battlefield for themselves.
  In the latter part of April, while the fighting in the Mogaung Valley was in progress, another force consisting of the 88th Regiment of the New 30th Division, the 150th Regiment of the 50th Division, and a regiment of United States infantrymen was concentrated at Maingkwan, and pushed southeastward for a surprise attack on Myitkyina.
  On May 19, the railway station was occupied for a time.
  Further reinforcements arrived on May 21 from Ledo, this being the 42nd Regiment of the 14th Division.
  The enemy, meanwhile, took advantage of the respite in sending for help and in consolidating his defense positions.
  The combating forces were interlocked against each other from May to mid July, when the battle reached the decisive stage. On August 3, the 50th Division organized a Dare-to-Die Corps which broke down the last of the enemy's stubborn resistance.

 Mogaung Valley
MOTORIZED UNIT PENETRATING THROUGH ENEMY STRATEGIC PASS OF JAMBUBUM TO MOGAUNG
 Mogaung Valley
MUD, AS A RESULT OF HEAVY RAINFALL, MADE THE PASSAGE EXTREMELY DIFFICULT.

 Mogaung Valley
TRENCH MORTARS SUPPLANTING HEAVY WEAPONS IN THE LOFTY HEIGHT OF KUMON BUM
 Assault on the Kumonbum

 Assault on the Kumonbum PLANS WERE MADE TO LAUNCH A SURPRISE ATTACK ON KAMAING AFTER GENERAL STILWELL AND GENERAL SUN MADE AN INSPECTION TOUR TO THE FRONT AND STUDIED THE SITUATION

 Assault on the Kumonbum
COLONEL CHEN MING-JEN, COMMANDER OF THE 112TH REGIMENT, IN CHARGE OF THE ASSAULT.
 Assault on the Kumonbum
CLOUDS CREATED BY BURSTS FROM OUR GUN FIRES

 Assault on the Kumonbum
LIGHT EQUIPPED DETACHMENTS READY TO MOVE FORWARD ACCORDING TO PLANS
 Assault on the Kumonbum
SMASHING THROUGH

 Assault on the Kumonbum
NAMKAUNG RIVER WAS CROSSED AT SETON SOUTH OF KAIMAING
 Assault on the Kumonbum
 Assault on the Kumonbum
ENCOUNTERING THE ENEMY IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE CROSSING OF NAMKAUNG RIVER
PLAIN-CLOTHED MACHINE-GUNNERS INFILTRATED INTO ENEMY POSITIONS
 Kamaing
 Kamaing
LIGHT MACHINES-GUNNERS GETTING CLOSE ON THE SUBURBS OF KAMAING
 Kamaing
CAPTURE OF KAMAING. THE FLEEING ENEMY LEFT NUMBERLESS CORPSES BEHIND.

 Kamaing
 Kamaing
HEAVY MACHINE GUN FIRING ON ENEMY LINE
 Kamaing
ADVANCING YARD BY YARD

 Kamaing
HEARTY WELCOME ACCORDED TO THE VICTORIOUS CHINESE TROOPS BY THE POPULACE OF MOGAUNG
 Kamaing
"ELEPHANT CAVALRY" CAPTURED IN THE BATTLE OF MOGAUNG
 Kamaing
A GROUP OF WAR PRISONERS


 First Aid Service
 First Aid Service MISS FANG YEN, TYPICAL OF THE CHINESE NURSES ACTIVE ON THE NORTH BURMA FRONT.

 First Aid Service
 First Aid Service
FIRST AID SERVICE GIVEN TO WOUNDED OFFICERS
AND MEN BY U.S. AND CHINESE FIELD HOSPITAL

  In the Burma Campaign, the Chinese and Americans undertook two different tasks. The first were engaged in fighting, the latter in transportation and supplies and their cooperation made success possible.
  In addition to transportation and supply, the work of giving first aid was also undertaken by the service forces.
  Ambulance and first aid work during the Burma Campaign was most satisfactory. From field surgeons tp field hospitals, station hospitals to base hospitals everywhere the work of giving medical attention to the needy was carried out efficiently and satisfactorily thus reducing the suffering of the wounded to a minimum.
  The medical services were so satisfactory that during the Burma Campaign many soldiers returned to the front after being wounded many times over. No less than 18 men had been wounded six times. Excepting those who fell in actual fighting, a very high percentage of the wounded recovered and were fit for service after treatment.


 Combat Map of Myitkyina Battle (CLICK TO ZOOM)
 Myitkyina TOP TO BOTTOM: KITCHEN CORPS
A DETACHMENT ON MARCH FROM MAINGKWAN
THE CAVALRY GOT READY TO MARCH ON
A DETACHMENT OF U.S. FORCE AT REST

 Myitkyina ARMY TRANSPORTS AND GLIDERS CONSOLIDATE THE OCCUPATION
 Myitkyina THE ARTILLERY CONSTRUCTING GUN POSITIONS
 Myitkyina GLIDERS LED BY TRANSPORT PLANES DIRECTED TOWARDS MYITKYINA
 Myitkyina
HEAVY MACHINE GUN FIRING FROM A VANTAGE POINT
 Myitkyina
CEMETARY OF OFFICERS AND MEN WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES IN THE NORTH BURMA CAMPAIGN

 Myitkyina
GLEAMING BATTLEFIELD OR PICTURESQUE LANDSCAPE
 Myitkyina THE CHINESE NATIONAL HOLIDAY (OCTOBER 10) WAS CELEBRATED BY THE NEW FIRST ARMY IN MYITKYINA WITH A MILITARY PARADE
 Myitkyina GENERAL SUN CONDUCTED AN INSPECTION OF THE MOTORIZED FORCES IN MYITKYINA

 Myitkyina
 Merits and Medals

LEFT GROUPING TOP:  THE PEACEFUL IRRAWADDY.  BOTTOM: GUARDIANS OF PEACE.
RIGHT GROUPING TOP:  LT. GEN. SULTAN WHO SUCCEEDED GEN. STILWELL AS COMMANDER OF CHINESE ARMY IN INDIA CONFERRED THE MEDALS ON BEHALF OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT.  BOTTOM: OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS OF THE NEW 38TH DIVISION WERE DECORATED BY THEIR DIVISIONAL COMMANDER, MAJ. GEN. LI HUNG.


  The New First Army rested at Myitkyina for nearly two months. By October, the rainy season in Northern Burma was over, the C.A.I. launched its second major offensive. The New First Army was to launch a frontal attack on Bhamo, while the New 6th Army was to head towards Shwegu from the left. The last named post was captured on October 29, after which the New 6th Army was recalled to China Theater and the Burma Campaign thenceforth was solely undertaken by the New First Army.
  From Myitkyina to Bhamo was mountainous terrain, which was helpful to the defense and provided difficulties for the attackers.
  During its march towards Bhamo, the New First Army unearthed en route a stone memorial of great historical importance. It was a commemorating tablet of one of the Chinese expeditions to the district in the Ming Dynasty, and characters "Wei Yuan Ying" (Overwhelming Afar Barracks) were boldly engraved on the center of the tablet. A description of the events leading to the erection of the memorial testified to the military operations and established the strategic importance of Bhamo even in those old days.
  Early in November, the New 38th Division had registered great progress in the advance. At this juncture, the Army made use of the great suspension bridge which had been built by one of the famous Chinese generals who undertook one of the expeditions into Burma during the Tsing dynasty.
  The enemy made full use of the boggy nature of the terrain at Bhamo in laying his defense positions which, it was later made known, took eight months to build.
  By November 16, the Chinese Army had taken the suburban regions and three of the airfields. The enemy retreated to the inner defenses within the city, and offered stiff resistance. He was immediately encircled.
  Street fighting ensued and the Chinese encirclement of the enemy was gradually tightened. The city of Bhamo was completely captured on December 15. The enemy was completely wiped out, and a large booty was captured.
  To commemorate this signal victory, the Allied Supreme Command in Northern Command named the road from Memauk to Bhamo the Sun Li-jen Highway, while a street in Bhamo was renamed Li Hung Road.

 Crossing the Irrawaddy
CROSSING THE IRRAWADDY - MOUNTAIN GUNS AND THEIR CARRIERS

 Second Offensive
A SECOND OFFENSIVE WAS LAUNCHED
 Crossing the Irrawaddy
TROOPS CROSSING THE IRRAWADDY

 Mountain Artillery
MOUNTAIN PIECES MOUNTED ON HORSEBACK AFTER RIVER CROSSING
 Tablet
"MING" TABLET COMMEMORATING CHINA'S ANCIENT VICTORY UNEARTHED AT MINOTI

 Advance Guards ADVANCE GUARDS ON THE MOVE
 Bhamo
STORMING BHAMO BY CROSSING THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE

 Bhamo
ENEMY PRISONER BEING QUESTIONED
BY GENERAL AND HIS STAFF
 Bhamo
FINDINGS BEING STUDIED TO FORMULATE PLANS FOR NEW DRIVE

 Bhamo
CLOSE ON BHAMO UNDER GUNFIRE
 Bhamo
STORMING OF BHAMO
 Bhamo
LIGHT MACHINE GUNNERS READY TO JUMP OVER

 Bhamo
AMONG THE TROPHIES CAPTURED IN BHAMO WERE OVER TEN JAP TANKS


 Bhamo
HIGH-RANKING OFFICERS MADE AN INSPECTION OF BHAMO AFTER OCCUPATION BY THE CHINESE FORCES


 Battle of Namhkam (CLICK TO ZOOM)
  While the battle for Bhamo was still in progress, General Sun Li-jen ordered the New 30th Division to proceed forward beyond Bhamo, heading for Namhkam.

The Battle at Kaibtik

  The enemy was given a surprise by the New 30th Division's march on Namhkam while the New 38th Division was still fighting for Bhamo. Reinforcements were brought in hurriedly in an attempt to disperse the New 30th Division and thence to go to the relief of Bhamo. These forces, recently transferred from Korea, met the New 30th Division at the Kaibtik plateau, and the first frontal battle of Northern Burma took place.
  Kaibtik is the highest salient between Bhamo and Namhkam and is of such strategic importance that its capture would be decisive in the battle for Namhkam.
  After a number of battles, the enemy was completely routed, abandoning 1260 dead when they retreated by December 14.

The Crossing of the Shweli River

  The approach to Namhkam is a narrow valley enclosed by mountains, and is neither easily attacked nor defended.
  By this time, Bhamo had already fallen, and the forces attacking Namhkam were reinforced by two regiments from the New 38th Division.
  The most eventful episode at this period of the campaign was the crossing of the Shweli River, a watercourse flanked by high cliffs offering a great risk to the undertaking.

The Capture of Namhkam

  Little fighting was expected in the Namhkam Valley itself, but the problem was the securing of the mountains surrounding the valley.
  After successfully crossing the Shweli River, the Chinese forces had little difficulty in breaking through enemy lines in the vicinity of Namhkam.
  On the morning of December 15, the Namhkam Valley was enveloped in a thick fog. The 90th Regiment marched through the fields into the town of Namhkam, which was fully captured before noon that day.

 Namhkam GENERAL SUN AT THE NAMHKAM FRONT, ACCOMPANIED BY MAJ. GEN. SHIH-YUEH, HIS CHIEF OF STAFF.
 Namhkam MAJ. GEN. TANG SHOU-CHIH, COMMANDER OF THE NEW 30TH DIVISION, REPORTING TO GEN. SUN ON THE COMBAT SITUATION

 Namhkam
GENERAL SUN GIVING INSTRUCTIONS TO FRONT-LINE FORCES
 Shweli River
 Shweli River DETACHMENTS CROSSING THE SHWELI RIVER TO CONDUCT A FLANK ATTACK

 Shweli River
RUBBER BOATS FOR THE CROSSING
 Shweli River
RIVER CROSSING WAS FOLLOWED BY MOUNTAIN CLIMBING

 Namhkam
A SCENE IN THE NAMHKAM COMBAT
 Namhkam
ANOTHER SCENE IN THE NAMHKAM COMBAT

 Namhkam ENGINEER CORPS COMBING THE GROUND WITH MINESWEEPERS FOR POSSIBLE MINES LAID BY THE FLEEING ENEMY
 Namhkam
EXPLOSION OF A MINE LEFT BY THE ENEMY ON THE STREETS OF NAMHKAM

 Namhkam TROPHIES CAPTURED BY THE NEW 30TH DIVISION ADVANCING TOWARD NAMHKAM
 Namhkam AT A MASS MEETING DELEGATES OF NAMHKAM POPULACE RELATING TO GENERAL SUN ATROCIOUS ACTS OF THE JAPANESE

 Mongyu
THE CHINESE ARMY IN INDIA AND CHINESE TROOPS FROM CHINA MET AT MONGYU
A CELEBRATION HELD AT WHICH U.S. AND CHINESE NATIONAL FLAGS WERE HOISTED UP


 Mongyu MUTUAL CONGRATULATIONS EXCHANGED BETWEEN GEN. WEI LIH-HUANG, COMMANDING GENERAL OF WEST YUNNAN WAR AREA AND GEN. SUN
 Mongyu CONGRATULATIONS! LONG LIVE CHINA! LONG LIVE THE ALLIES!
 Monument MONUMENT IN MONGYU ERECTED BY THE JAPANESE IN MEMORY OF THEIR OCCUPATION OF BURMA IN 1942

 Reunion REUNION OF THE SOLDIERS
 Triumphal Return CHINESE EXPEDITIONARY FORCES WELCOMING THE TRIUMPHAL RETURN OF CHINESE ARMY IN INDIA-BURMA


  After the capture of Namhkam, the New 38th Division did not allow the enemy breathing space, and continued to march rapidly on to Mongyu, the intersection point between the new India-China Road and the old Burma Road. The point was captured on January 27, 1945, and the historic junction of the Chinese Army in India and the Chinese Expeditionary Force from west Yunnan was effected.
  The khaki-clad New First Army and the grey cotton-padded uniformed Expeditionary Force arrived at the appointed meeting place early in the morning when the ceremony was witnessed by a number of ranking Chinese and American generals. The Chinese National Flag and the Stars and Stripes were hoisted amidst the playing of the national anthems of the two countries and a salvo of gun fire.
  In an address on the occasion, General Wei Li-huang referred to the junction as the most important achievement in Sino-American cooperation. The principal slogan of the day was "To Tokyo," and the junction at Mongyu was celebrated as the prelude of the meeting of the Allies in Tokyo.
  After the ceremony, the two forces parted company. The Expeditionary Force returned to China. But the Chinese Army in India had not yet completed its duties - the safeguarding of the Stilwell Road. The stalwart sons of the New First Army continued their march on Lashio.

 Opening of the Stilwell Road
 Opening of the Stilwell Road BULLDOZERS AT WORK ON ROAD CONSTRUCTION
 Opening of the Stilwell Road PIPELINE THROBBING PARALLEL TO STILWELL ROAD

 Opening of the Stilwell Road DR. T. V. SOONG, PRESIDENT OF THE EXECUTIVE YUAN, ADMINISTERED THE INAUGURATION OF BEHALF OF GENERALISSIMO CHIANG KAI-SHEK
 Opening of the Stilwell Road
THE FIRST TRUCK CARAVAN OF SUPPLIES TO CHINA

 Opening of the Stilwell Road
THRONGS OF PEOPLE GATHERED AT THE CEREMONY

  With the junction of the Chinese armies at Mongyu, the India-China Road was cleared of the enemy. The road was officially opened and named after General Stilwell by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.
  One hundred and five vehicles participated in the ceremony for the opening of the highway - the first convoy traveling from India to China.
  When the convoy passed through the Field Headquarters of the New First Army, General Sun Li-jen gave an official reception at which the guests were offered Chinese and Australian food, American cigarettes, British matches, and Indian liquor.
  The official opening ceremony was held at Wanting, and presided over by President of the Executive Yuan Dr. T. V. Soong.
  The opening of the Stilwell Road was soon followed by the opening of the India-China pipeline. Trucks using the highway sent supplies of arms for the improvement of the equipment of the Chinese fighting forces, while the pipeline brought into China the fuel needed for the motive power of the China war theatre. A great stride was made towards victory.

 Opening of the Stilwell Road ENTHUSIASTIC WELCOME FROM THE PEOPLE ALONG THE ROAD
 Opening of the Stilwell Road FIRST CARAVAN WELCOMED AT PAOSHAN

 Opening of the Stilwell Road THE HUEITUNG BRIDGE ACROSS THE LU KIANG BETWEEN LUNG-LING AND PAOSHAN, YUNNAN
 Opening of the Stilwell Road THE TRUCK CARAVAN PASSING THE BRIDGE

 General Pick BRIG. GEN. PICK, COMMANDING GENERAL OF ENGINEER CORPS, U.S.A. WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND ITS COMPLETION AND FOR WHOM THE ROAD WAS SUBSEQUENTLY DUBBED "PICK'S PIKE."
 Burma Road
THE BURMA ROAD WHICH IS LINKED WITH STILWELL ROAD

 Kunming
ARRIVAL OF THE FIRST CARAVAN IN KUNMING


CAPTURE OF LASHIO AND HSIPAW


 Lashio and Hsipaw (CLICK TO ZOOM)
From Hsenwi to Lashio

  While the enemy was cleared off from the Stilwell Road, he still maintained forces at Meng Yu and Namhakka. The New 50th and New 38th Divisions therefore continued to clear these districts of remnant enemy units, and the divisional commander of the enemy 56th Division barely escaped being taken prisoner in the engagement.
  Hsenwi was captured by the New 30th Division on February 20, when the march on Lashio was launched.
  The 30 odd miles separating Hsenwi and Lashio was very mountainous territory, and the progress was necessarily slow but now with the arrival of armored car units our forces were reinforced.
  The old town of Lashio fell on March 6, while the new section of the town fell three days later.

From Mwanhawm to Hsipaw

  The capture of Lashio completed the mission of the New 38th and the New 50th Divisions, but the 50th Division had still to effect the last act in the Burma campaign.
  The 50th Division, after the Mogaung Valley campaign, was first charged with the task of affording assistance to our British Allies (36th British Division) in their attack of Katha which was successfully accomplished. The 50th Division then crossed the Irrawaddy to mop-up the remnant enemy units in that district. The battle for Mwanhawn was the fiercest engagement in this connection, and the point was captured after a series of vogorous attacks.
  The 50th Division carried on its victorious march southwards and by the middle of March captured Hsipaw and on March 23 effected a junction with the New 38th Division on the Naphai Highway.
  The area west of Hsipaw was virtually a British war zone but because of the swift advance of Chinese Army the British were enabled to push immediately southwards to lower Burma, leaving the Chinese forces to capture the important point of Kyaukme west of Hsipaw with which Chinese Army in India concluded its brilliant Burma campaign.
 Lashio and Hsipaw
OUTPOST ON THE LASHIO FRONT
 Lashio and Hsipaw
RADIOS WERE ALTERNATELY USED IN THE MOUNTAINOUS REGIONS OF LASHIO

 Lashio and Hsipaw
 Lashio and Hsipaw
 Lashio and Hsipaw

Joint Operation at Lashio

 Lashio
 Lashio

 Lashio
BOMBARDMENT OF HEAVY GUNS
 Lashio
SMASHING OVER THE BARBED WIRE BARRICADES

 Lashio
SEA OF FLAMES
 Lashio
UNDER COVER
 Lashio
MACHINE-GUN FIRE

 Lashio
AMMUNITION SUPPLIED BY PARACHUTING TO THE FORCES HOLDING POSITIONS HIGH UP IN THE MOUNTAINS

 Hsipaw MAJ. GEN. PAN YU-KUN, COMMANDER OF 50TH DIVISION, GIVING A CRITIQUE ON THE TACTICS OF THE BATTLE OF HSIPAW
 Trophies
TROPHIES CAPTURED BY 50TH DIVISION

 Trophies
 Trophies


Trophies

  No less than six Japanese Divisions were routed by the New First Army in Burma, the casualties amounting to 100,000, with 323 taken prisoner. Trophies captured by the New First Army included 7,938 rifles, 643 machine guns, 186 cannons, 553 motor vehicles, 453 locomotives and wagons, 67 tanks, 5 planes, 108 warehouses and more than 20,000 tons of metals.

Prisoners of War

  It must be admitted that the Japanese soldier was fully imbibed with the spirit of sacrifice, which was especially demonstrated in the Saipan and Iwo Jima engagements in the Pacific where the Japanese willingly died rather than surrender. Accordingly, in the wide stretched battlefield of Burma where more than 2,000 engagements took place, only 300 odd prisoners were taken, amounting to 0.3 percent of the number of their casualties. However, a low ebb in Japanese morale was noticeable with his defeat at Yupong Ga, where the Japanese militarist hold on the rank and file began to lose his grip.
  The best treatment possible was accorded the Japanese war prisoners who were subjected only to restrictions in their movements but received all the medical attention they needed. The stubbornness of these prisoners were soon won over and they were made to realize their folly in playing into the hands of their ambitious military aggressors.
  The prisoners taken in Burma were ultimately transferred to internment camps kept by the Allied Command at New Delhi.

 Prisoners
 Prisoners

 Prisoners
 Prisoners
 Prisoners

 Prisoners
 Prisoners
 Prisoners

 Cultural Activities

Culture in Army Life

  In addition to military training, spiritual training was given the Chinese Army.
  During the training at Ramgarh, a campaign against illiteracy among the enlisted men was carried out.
  When the men were sent into actual battle, their cultural life was not neglected. Newspapers were issued among various units.
  Dramatic entertainment was also successfully carried on to benefit the men. Performances were often staged by their own members even during the progress of fighting. Motion picture squads were later also introduced as an additional recreation.

 Cultural Activities THE CHORUS ORGANIZED BY THE PD OF THE NEW 38TH DIVISION, ITS MEMBERS CONSISTING OF CHINESE RESIDENTS IN BHAMO WITH AGES RANGING FROM 6 TO 40.
 Cultural Activities DRAMATIC TROOPS ATTACHED TO THE NEW 38TH DIVISION STAGING A PERFORMANCE

 Cultural Activities PUBLIC ENTERTAINMENT SPONSORED BY NEW FIRST ARMY FOR ITS OFFICERS AND MEN
 Cultural Activities THE CHINESE SCHOOL IN MYITKYINA SPONSORED BY THE NEW FIRST ARMY

 Cultural Activities FOR THE CONSOLATION AND ENTERTAINMENT OF THE RANK AND FILE WHO TOOK PART IN THE OCCUPATION OF BHAMO, THE ARMY OPERATIC TROUPE WENT ON STAGE FOR TWELVE CONSECUTIVE DAYS
 Cultural Activities THE INAUGURATION OF THE CHINESE SCHOOL IN BHAMO


Public Relations with People

  The Army also undertook work in establishing good relations with the population in the war zones - a measure which proved most effective in promoting cooperation between the Army and the people.
  Special Service workers of the Army visited villages to bring succour to the population suffering from the Japanese invaders. Their sympathy was soon won and they cooperated in various measures to the progress of the military operations.
  The Army also took time to pay attention to the improvement of the large numbers of overseas Chinese communities in Burma. In this interaction, General Sun Li-jen was personally interested in various schemes for the betterment of the lot of the Chinese residents.

 Public Relations PD WORKERS MAKING CALLS AT RURAL PLACES
 Public Relations THE TEMPORARY BAZAAR BUILT BY BHAMO PEOPLE AT THE INITIATIONS OF THE PD WORKERS

 Public Relations THE CHINESE TROOPS REHABILITATED A VILLAGE FOR THE OVERSEAS CHINESE RESIDENTS IN MYITKYINA WHO HAVE BEEN RENDERED HOMELESS DURING THE FIGHTING


 Snap Photos
 Snap Photos
 Snap Photos
 Snap Photos

 Snap Photos
 Snap Photos
 Snap Photos

 Snap Photos
 Snap Photos
 Snap Photos

 Scenes
 Scenes
 Scenes

 Scenes
 Scenes
 Scenes


THE TRIUMPHAL RETURN

 The Triumphal Return
  After the victorious conclusion of the Burma campaign, the New First Army was assembled at Myitkyina to await orders for its triumphant return.
  Towards the end of June, 1945, our Allied Air Force placed more than 30 air transports of the C-46 and C-47 models for the transportation of the New First Army back to China. The general counter-offensive in the China Theatre was to be launched, and the New First Army was to take up the task of the offensive against the enemy on the Liuchow Peninsula, to coordinate with the operations of our Allies in the Pacific.
  While the New First Army was marching towards its new destination from Nanning in August, 1945, the Japanese announced their unconditional surrender. The Army was then commissioned with the new task of accepting the enemy's surrender in the Canton area.

The Causes of Victory

  The brilliant victories scored in Burma by the Chinese Army in India were neither accidental nor sheer luck. The general conception that the success was chiefly due to the efforts of our Allies was also exaggerated. Of course, air support, efficient supply lines, and excellent first aid service by our Allies contributed much to the outcome, but the main source of success lay in the hardy fight put up by our own men.
  High morale and capacity for endurance marked the principal characteristics of the C.A.I. The operations carried out over difficult terrain in northern Burma were further complicated by the roundabout movements which were employed on more than one occasion to surprise the enemy. The stamina and ability for physical endurance displayed by the Chinese troops made a great impression on the United States Medical Corps, and even on the enemy who prided his bushido.
  Superior strategy and efficient command also marked the Burma campaign where the Chinese Army usually took the initiative in the engagements.
  The intensive training received by the C.A.I., which was continued even during the campaign when no actual fighting took place, was another factor which ensured victory.

 Surrender TOP: THE LOCAL COMMANDER OF THE JAPANESE FORCES SIGNED THE INSTRUMENT OF SURRENDER. BOTTOM: GENERAL SUN COMING OUT OF SUN YAT-SEN MEMORIAL WHERE THE SURRENDER WAS JUST SIGNED.
 Surrender THE NEW FIRST ARMY WAS DISPATCHED TO CANTON TO ACCEPT THE SURRENDER OF THE JAPANESE FORCES IN SOUTH CHINA

 Memorial
 Memorial THE NEW FIRST ARMY SELECTED A 119-ACRE AREA ON THE WHITE CLOUD HILL NEAR CANTON TO ERECT ITS TOMB FOR THE FALLEN.  ABOVE: THE MEMORIAL TABLET STANDING ERECT AT THE CENTER OF TOMB.  RIGHT: INSCIRTION ON THE MEMORIAL TABLET.  BELOW: JAPANESE PRISONERS AT WORK ON THE TOMB.  BOTTOM: OTHER JAPANESE PRISONERS BEING SENT TO CONCENTRATION CAMPS.

 Prisoners work on Memorial

 Prisoners work on Memorial












CHINESE ARMY
INDIA-BURMA
CAMPAIGN


BATTLE MAPS

GENERAL SUN VISITS ETO